Accelerate the decline in global CO2 emissions
On October 24, the International Energy Agency made an uncompromising observation: despite the rise of clean technologies in recent years, the demand for fossil fuels remains too high to limit warming to 1.5°. C, as provided for in the 2015 Paris Agreement – the trend takes us more towards 2.4°C, according to the organization. At COP28, one of the challenges of the negotiations is therefore to work towards an accelerated exit from fossil fuels. An immense challenge: because despite the recommendations of the UN group of experts on climate (IPCC), which recommends a rapid reduction in CO2 emissions by 2030, we are still “addicted”: oil, coal and gas represent 80% of the energy currently used in the world.
Sustain the 100 billion annual dollars for countries in the South
The promise was supposed to ring true in 2020: $100 billion in annual funding for developing countries to deal with climate change. It has fallen behind, but we are getting closer, at 83.3 billion according to the latest figures provided by the OECD. This financing is decisive, not only to facilitate the energy transition of countries in the South – and thus “skip” the fossil box, for example, and invest in solar, wind, geothermal energy, etc. – but also adapt to extreme climatic events. Almost four years late, the beneficiary States hope, in Dubai, to see these resources finally guaranteed each year.
Compensate for “irremediable losses”
During COP28, vulnerable countries will be very attentive to progress on “loss and damage”, in other words the irreversible damage already caused by climate change. In fact, during the last COP, in Egypt, negotiators agreed to create a dedicated fund… it still needs to be implemented. And settle burning debates: who will pay? Who will benefit from this funding: all so-called “developing” states, including China, or only the least developed countries and the islands directly threatened by rising sea levels? Will there be new taxes on fossil fuel industries, aviation or maritime transport? The discussions promise to be tense. It is estimated that more than three billion people live in areas threatened by the effects of climate.