1994. The first Chechen war began, three years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, in the wake of which the small Republic had unilaterally proclaimed its independence.
The Russian intervention ends in a fiasco for Moscow, which withdraws from Chechnya after losing thousands of soldiers. The Chechen losses, civilian and military, are counted in the tens of thousands.
1999. Founding act of the reign of Vladimir Putin, the second war in Chechnya aims to crush for good the separatist tendencies of the Republic. This is done after ten years of fighting and counter-insurgency, at the cost of tens of thousands of deaths and systematic human rights violations.