Invasive and semi-invasive brain-machine interfaces (BCIs), still in the research stage, have been tested on very few patients around the world. This technology took off at the turn of the 20th century, and is now developing in the United States, France, the Netherlands, Germany and China.
Other types of brain implants are already seeing strong and widespread clinical application, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) by placing a probe made up of electrodes in the brain. It is used in 5 to 10% of Parkinson’s patients to limit tremors.
This type of implant is not always considered a brain-machine interface, because it is not based on the recording of brain activity but on the administration of small pulses of electrical current.
Neurosurgeon Alim-Louis Benabid pioneered DBS in the 1980s. In 2011, he founded the Clinatec laboratory, which today develops a semi-invasive ICM. The Neuralink implant is invasive.
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